Moroccan Dessert
 
History of Morocco

Contents:

  • History of Morocco
  • Arrival of Islam
  • International Strength
  • Decline/Isolation
  • Independence
  • Modernizaton

History of Morocco

Around 3000 BCE – Population is severely decreased to the rapid growth of the Sahara .

Around 1000 BCE – Implementation of trading posts along the costal trading posts. A major stop before and after traversing the Sahara desert.

Around 200 BCE – Even with the fall of the Phoenician Empire, trading continues to grow at a rapid pace.

Around 0 – Establishment of a Berber Empire in Northwest Morocco

42 – Roman invasion of Moroccan coastal region. Morocco becomes part of a province known as Mauritania Tingitana. The Roman presence is met with great resistance and the start of many wars between locals and Romans ensue.

253 – Rome withdraws their troops from most of Morocco .

429 – Mauritania Tingitana is occupied by the Germanic tribe known as Vandals.

533 – The Byzantine Empire rules the costal areas of Morocco .

Arrival of Islam

681 – First introduction of Islam by Uqba Ibn Nafi.

683 – Muslim troops flee country after Uqba is defeated by a Berber chieftain.

787 – Moulay Idriss establishes an infrastructure for an Arab state in Central Morocco . Moroccans give Idriss the title of Imam (important person) and he starts the first line of Moroccan rulers (the Idrissid Dynasty).

807 – Moulay Idriss II takes power and rules for 20 years. His kingdom expands to the oases south of the Atlas mountains . Fez is made the capital of Morocco.

10 th Century – Idriss dynasty disintegrates as Morocco collapses into smaller kingdoms.

International Strength

1062 – Morocco is once again united. The Berber era of Almoravids lasts 83 years.

1090 – Emperor Yousef takes control of Spain and consequently strains his forces thus beginning the fall of the Almoravid Empire.

1145 – A new Berber tribe from the high mountains, the Almohads topple the Almoravids in Fez led by Abdu l-Mu'min.

1147 – Abdu l-Mu'min drives Almoravids out of Marrakech.

1195 – Yaakub Al-Mansur the third of the Almohad sultans takes control of southern Spain .

1212 – Muhammadu n-Nasr, the fourth sultan loses the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Morocco again falls into despair and small local tribes again rule Morocco.

Decline / Isolation

1248 – The Merenids conquer Fez and then set out to seize Marrakech. This period is followed by three centuries of political and cultural stagnation.

1415 – The Port of Sebta (now Ceuta ) falls to the Portuguese.

1465 – The Merenids old vizier family, the Wattasids, take formal control over Morocco . The Wattasids had been the essential rulers of Morroco for the previous 45 years.

1492 – Strong economic growth is seen as over 1 Million Jewish and Muslim refugees from Spain flee to Morocco .

1579 – Following the famous battle of three kings, Ahmed Al Mansour becomes king, his power starts what considered to be the golden age lasting more than twenty years.

1672 – Moulay Ismail becomes king, he makes Meknes his capital, his rule lasted until 1727 by when most of Morocco was under his control.

Early 19th century: Moulay Slimane proves to be unwise politician, cutting off relations with Europe and banning any Moroccan exports to Europe . This weakened the economy.

1860 – Morocco gives up Sidi Ifni to Spain .

1880 – Morocco is forced to turn Tangier into a zone of international administration, Morocco has protested against this, but Morocco was so weak that they had to give up.

1894 – Sultan Moulay Hassan dies and his son Abelaaziz is only 10 years, during his reign, Europeans became the main advisors at the court and local rules became more independent from the sultan's rule.

1904 – Colonialism begins, French made an agreements with England and Italy leaving Morocco within the control of France .

1907 – France occupies Oujda and Casablanca .

1909 – Spain sends 90,000 troops to Melilia and Ceuta .

1910 – Moulay Hafid is trapped by the French, and forced to conclude agreements with the French.

1912 – The treaty of Fez is signed. With this France is given the right to defend Morocco . Another treaty was signed with Spain who occupied most of the northern coast and areas in the south.

1921 – Abelhakim, rebellion in the Rif Mountains protests against the Spanish exploiting of Moroccan territories. He was stopped later by 360,000 spanish and french troops.

1943 – The nationalists from the party Istiqlal called for total independence for Morocco .

1953 – Sultan Muhammad V is exiled after joining forces with the nationalists and refusing to cooperate with the French.

1955 – The French allow the Sultan to return.

Independence

1956 – In March, France bestows full independence to Morocco . Sultan Muhammad V takes over the country, more united than it has ever been in its history. In April, Spain hands over most of its territories. In October, the free zone of Tangier is handed over to Morocco .

1961 – King Muhammad V dies, and son Hassan II takes over.

1962 – A new constitution is adopted by popular referendum in December. This secures the kings power within the confines of a democratic structure.

1963 – The first general elections in Morocco are held. The Loyalist parties win a majority of the seats.

1965 – In June, King Hassan suspends the parliament, and assumes full control of the legislative and executive powers. He held the position of Prime Minister until 1967.

1969 – In January, Spain hands over Ifni .

1975 – In November, the Green March, Al Massira, occurs in which Morocco annexes the northern 2/3 of the Western Sahara . The Al Massira brings Morocco into was with the armed forced of the Western Sahara (Polisario).

1979 – Morocco occupies part of the Western Sahara as Mauritania withdraws.

1983 – In October, parliament elections are cancelled and the king takes full control of all legislative and executive power.

1984 – In protest to the presence of Polisario in the Western Sahara, Morocco leaves the Organization of African Unity.

1989 – An agreement with Polisario is reached and a ceasefire is called.

Modernization

1992 – For the first time, annexed areas ( Western Sahara ) participate in local elections.

1993 – In November, none of the parties from the elections the year before were able to form an government. King Hassan appoints an un-political government of technocrats and independents.

1995 – In February King Hassan appoints a new government consisting of members of the conservative parties.

1996 – Morocco signs the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership with the European Union. The agreement paves the way for free trade between Morocco and the European Union.

1997 – In April legislative elections were held where the socialist party becomes the biggest holder of seats.

1998 – Morocco , for the first time, receives a government formed by opposition politicians. This is considered the start of true democratization in the country.

1999 – King Hassan dies in July, leaving the throne to his nearly unknown son, Muhammad VI.

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